Ideally strategies associated with reading texts should stimulate recognition of the intrinsic pleasures of reading.That is, they should return and refer to the book.Our purpose and motivation in sharing texts with young readers should be engagement and student interest.The following ideas suggest various ways of setting young readers to find enjoyment in thinking about what they are reading and themselves as readers.

Picture Books

Morpurgo, Michael & Christian Birmingham(1999) Wombat Goes Walkabout Collins.
Wombat goes in search of his mother in the bush, encountering iconic animals and a bushfire along the way.
This book can be used fruitfully to allow children to discover a range of different structural patterns in the narrative.It contains a variety of simple repetitive patterns that children can identify readily, e.g. "I dig a lot and I think a lot", the use of words"just then" to signify the introduction of a new animal, the questioning by Wombat and the dismissive phrase"that's nothing".

Related Texts
Brooks, R & Wagner, J(1973) The Bunyip of Berkeley's Creek, Longman.
Burningham, J.(1970) Mr Gumpy's Outing, Jonathan Cape.
Eastman, P.D. (1962) Are you my Mother? Collins.
Fox, M &Argent, K. (1995) Wombat Divine, Omnibus Books.
French, J.& Whatley,B (2002) Diary of a Wombat, Angus& Robertson.
Park, R. &Young, N.(1962) The Muddle-Headed Wombat, Educational Press.


Dubosarsky, Ursula & Macintosh, David (2005) Rex, Penguin Books/ Viking.
Rex, the chameleon, is the class pet and one class member takes him home every night. The real experiences of Rex are told in words while the illustrations represent what various children imagine Rex to have performed, in their own drawings.
While young children should be aware of the ways in which texts are constructed and seek to position them, they should also find their own meanings in books they read.
Ask the children to talk about the illustrations and the way each child has drawn Rex. Have the children answer the final question in the book and write or draw their suggestions.
Related Texts
Carroll, J. & Smith, C.(1995) Billy the Punk, Random House.
Clement, R. (1995) Just Another Ordinary Day, Angus & Robertson.
Lester, A. (1985) Clive Eats Alligators, Oxford University Press.
Pfanner, L. & Gamble, K (2004) Our School Fete, ABC Books.


Fox, Mem Possum Magic
http://www.e-magination.org/raa/possum_magic/possum_magic.htm

Fox, Mem Koala Lou
http://www.e-magination.org/raa/koala_lou/koala_lou.htm

Picture Books for Older Readers


Browne, Anthony (2004) Into The Forest, Walker.
Anthony Browne plays with ideas of story-stories within a story, the reader's recognition of familiar fairy talesin both textual and visual representations and unpredictability.
Discuss
Why are the end papers brillant red and how does this position the reader to expect a particular reading experience?
Is Dad visiting an ill grandma?
Is the story about separation and reconcilation?
Does it reflect a child's limited understanding of the adult world?
What is the purpose of the fairytale allusions in both text and illustrations? Find the beanstalk, the three bears' cottage, the gingerbread house, and Hansel in the cage, Rapunzel's tower, a spinning wheel, a shoe, apumpkin, a key etc.
Discuss the author's construction and choices such as
the colours of the opening illustration, lighting, the soldier with only one leg
the facial expressions, body positions, blank surroundings in the second picture
recurring images- the shadow behind the boy's bed,
behind the father's chair
behind grandma's bed,
the cracked photo of the family
the forest as a metaphorfor dream/nightmare/imagination
the boy wearing the red coat of Little Red Riding Hood and it not being on when he enters grandma's house
the strange voice at grandma's house
grandma ill
Mun's emotional difference on the second and final page
that the boy is nameless.
Related Texts
Crew, G. & Gouldthorpe, P.(1993) First Light, Lothian Books.
Tan, S (2000) The Lost Thing, Lothian Books.
Tan, S (2001) The Red Tree, Lothian Books.



Jorgensen, Norman&Harrison-Lever, Brian (2002) In Flanders Fields, Sandcastle Books.
This text tells of a well -known event that took place on a Flanders battlefield during First World War in 1914 on Christmas morning, when Allied and German troops ceased battle to share a moment of peace in song.
The story is written in present tense and the main character remains nameless throughout.Consider the purpose of these narrative choices, the 'everyman' perspective of the central character, the book's view on war, the symbolism of
the red robin
the white silk scarf
the Christmas carol Silent Night
the red poppies on the final page.
Discuss the poem and image on the final page of the book and the imagery they both contain.
Related Texts
Crew, G & Tan, S (1999) Memorial, Lothian Books
Heffernan, J & McLean, A (2001) My Dog, Margaret Hamilton Books.
McEwan, I& Innocenti, R. (1985) Rose Blanche, Cape.
Mattingley,C.& Lacis, A.(1984) The Angel with a Mouth-organ,Hodder and Stoughton.
Mattingley,C.& Yamaguchi, M.(1985) The Miracle Tree, Hodder and Stoughton.


Riddle, Tohby,(`1997) The Great Escape from City Zoo, Angus & Robertson.
A flamingo, an elephant, an aardvark and a turtle escape from the zoo and explore the built world of humans as they determine what being free might mean.Ironic, playful, tantalising, this story in its muted greys and whites is also Riddle's tribute to the silver screen.
Identify the source of each image if you can and talk about why the author might have used it, such as the cover of the Beatles' Abbey Road album, film version of The Grapes of Wrath and How Green Was My Valley, Blazing Saddles, the art of Giorgio De Chirico, Piet Mondrain, Edward Hopper and Rene Magritte, a famous image of the Loch Ness monster.
Consider that most of these works of art and popular culture come from a similiar period. How does this impact on, and /or relate to the story?
Related Texts
Browne, A. (2000) Willy's Pictures, Doubleday.
Tan, S. (2000)The Last Thing, Lothian Books.



Older Readers Short Stories


Maloney, James (2005) 68 Teeth, Aussie Chomps, Puffin Books.
Jack lives in the gulf country property and is home from boarding school for the summer holidays when a pup, Nutmeg, goes missing, and he sights a huge crocodile while fishing in the river. A crocodile hunter is brought in to catch it, clearly sceptical of Jack's description of its size.Nils catches a croc that Jack is sure is not the one he saw.
Fast-paced suspenseful narrative action draws the reader into a text and the power of the heroic act depends upon the ability of the text to convince the reader that what occurs could have happened.
Identify the events that build the suspense within the novel.
Identify what makes Jack's resourceful actions so convincing.
Identify the characteristics that Molony gives Jack that enable him to get through his moment of crisis without panic.
Related Texts
D'Ath, J. (2005) Crocodile Attack! Puffin Books
Harris, D (1999) Fortress, Penguin Books.
Harris, D (1999) Devil's Island, Penguin Books.
Murray, K. (1999) Tough Stuff, Allen& Unwin.


Colfer, Eoin (2004) Benny & Omar, Puffin Books.
Benny and his friend move from Ireland to Tunisia.He makes friends with an orphaned street kid, Omar, whose English is gleaned from watching satellite television.Benny is precipitated into another world, one which challenges his loyalties and understandings of cultural, economic and familial divides.
This book is filled with clever humor. It also raises fundamental questions about being human- friendships, families, loyalty, valuing and respecting cultural diversity, and also about issuesof social and racial inequality, death and loss.
Ask students to write down 2 words that describe their response to Benny & Omar and 2 questions they have about the book. These responses can be used for discussion topics.
Related Texts
Gleitzman, M (2002) Boy Overboard, Puffin Books.
Hawke, R. (2004) Soraya, the Storyteller, Lothian Books.
Mason, P (2004) Camel Rider, Puffin Books.

Media Texts

Film, television, advertising, everyday and popular culture texts employ powerful, persuading techniques to elicit a desired response from their audience. Such texts can be rich sources of analytical and critical thinking and/ or viewing in the classroom.
Shrek and Sherek 2 are highly intertextual, layered and play with fairytale conventions and language. It is a story based on a story, poking tongue-in-cheek fun at the world of classic fairytales.The movie is based on the book
Steig, William(1990) Shrek!
Strategies
Compare the book to the movie and consider what differences the animation, music, voices etc., make to the story.
How does the story establish the sterotype of an orge, what characteristics make up an orge?
Consider Shrek dining by himself at the beginning of the story; his behaviour when the fairytale creatures invade his swamp;his actions in the castle to save Fiona.
What of the other characters-Fiona,Donkey, Dragon and Farquard? How do they differ from their stereotype?
Consider the music.
This movie celebrates difference, and the importance of recognising the true character of someone despite their appearance. It also recognises the importance of true friendship. Can you identify examples of each of these themes?
Related Texts
Briggs, R. (1970) Jack and the Beanstalk,Hamish Hamilton.
Scieszka, J &Smith, L. (1992) The Stinky Cheese Man and other Stupid Tales, Viking.
Dreamworks (film) (2004) Shrek 2


Graphic Novels

Graphic novels are sophisticated narrative constructions in which the reader is required to read simultaneously, the verbal narrative, dialogue represented in speech balloons, and the plot, interactions between characters and the setting, all carried in the visual text.The narrative is expressed in sequential visual frames, and is often subtle, complex and involving. Illustrative styles can range from the comic-like manga to photorealist art, with frames within frames, close-ups, spotlit scenes and so on.
The value of graphic novels in a library collection has been championed for some time by many commentators.Research shows the importance of this format to the current generation of readers who appreciate the reading of images and constantly changing backgrounds of a fluid nature.The popularity of this format cannot be discounted.To see graphic novels only as a medium of the current generation is to ignore the depth of history of the format, and the large numbers of people who hae found comics the reading format that most turned them on to reading as a life long experience.
In APS Library, popular graphic novels include
Tintin series
Horrible Histories magazines
Horrible Science magazines


Reference
La Marca, Susan& Macintyre, Pam (2006) Knowing Readers School Library Association of Victoria Inc.


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